℞unes ɐnd Ƒinal Ɀ

Lets discuss the final z in Rune names.

The Germanic  Futhark (aka: Elder Futhark) was used by Germanic tribes during the Migration Age who spoke a NW Germanic dialect. Commonly used today, it was extensively used during the 2-8th centures CE on everything from cooking utensils to weapons.

Being an ‘alphabet’ it has characters that represent sounds used by its speakers, such as:
-Ð / ð (edh / eð) which found its way into English as th and ng;
-an umlaut i (ï); and
-z, which was later clarified as an r-like sound. In academic papers it is represented as R (where Norse inscriptions are rendered into English). The initial z-ending was used because there was no equivalent, so essentially, it was used as a ‘filler’. It is an inaccurate sound that has persisted even when academics – and researchers such as myself – point this out. Of note, the letter z, pronounced ‘zed’ in most English-speaking countries, is from the 17th century CE, so would not have been even remotely used by the Germanic tribes.

I tend to use a stream-lined spelling of the Runes, one that more closely reflects how it would have been pronounced in a mix of Germanic and Anglo-Saxon. For example:
Feoh, Ur, Thorn, Ansur, Rad, Cen, Gebo, Wunjo, Hagl, Need, Isa, Gera, Eoh, Peorth, Algir, Sowulo, Tyr, Berkana, Ehwar, Mann, Lagu, Ing, Dag, Odal.

Regarding the final two, many modern futharks place Dag last, yet both the Old English and Gothic Rune names follow the above order. Likewise, the Kylver Stone too lists Odal in last place (pic above).

Finally, in that the Germanic Futhark was created to write those sounds, I do not use them to write English. Simply, those sounds either no longer exist, or create a different meaning.

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Would You Know More, And What?



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